# Functions IF, AND, OR in Excel

In this example, I show you how to use *IF*, *AND*, *OR* functions together in the Excel worksheet. There is not only the one solution in logical tasks. You can always modify the formula in different ways.

## Example

There are two exams in the table. Each student has to pass both of exams. Status is *OK* means that he passed. Status *NOK* means he did not pass.

Task: Create a function that evaluate if both exams are *OK*. If it’s true then Result is *Y*. If it’s not true then Result is *N*.

### Solution by using functions IF, AND

We will focus on the first student and the result *Y*. When it occurs? The answer is: When the cells *B2* **and** *C2* are both set to *OK*. So, we create the function like this:

=IF(AND(B2=”OK”,C2=”OK”),”Y”,”N”)

The parameters *OK*, *Y* and *N* are text strings so they have to be in the quotation marks.

Function *AND* returns only *TRUE*/*FALSE* value.

- If all of the logical tests in the *AND* function are *TRUE*, the result is *TRUE*.

- If at least one of the logical tests is *FALSE*, the result is *FALSE*.

### Solution by using functions IF, OR

Now, we examine the result *N*. It occurs when the cell *B2* **or** *C2* is set to *NOK*. The formula will be:

=IF(OR(B2=”NOK”,C2=”NOK”),”N”,”Y”)

Notice that the combination *IF* with *AND* is a logical opposite of the function *IF* with *OR*. Reverse is also true, *OR* is a logical opposite of *AND*.

### Solution by using multiple IF

This is a little bit different way to solve the logical problem. We put one *IF* function into the other.

=IF(B2=”OK”,IF(C2=”OK”,”Y”,”N”),”N”)

The first *IF* function will evaluate *B2=”OK”*. If it’s *FALSE* then the result is *N*. If it’s *TRUE* we need the other *IF* function to evaluate *C2=”OK”*. If it’s *TRUE* the result is *Y*, if not then the result is *N*.

You can change this formula to check *B2=”NOK”*. The principle is the same but everything is inverted.

=IF(B2=”NOK”,”N”,IF(C2=”NOK”,”N”,”Y”))

## Result

You can go by different ways but the result will be always the same and correct.

### Advantages/disadvantages of using AND, OR

- The formula is shorter (especially when you need to test more conditions).

- Sometimes, it is very hard to decide whether to use *AND* or *OR*.

### Advantages/disadvantages of using multiple IF

- The formula is longer (especially when you need to test more conditions).

- In more complex task is easier to figure out the formula.

## Useful tool – Evaluate Formula

This tool can help you to better understand the formula and find errors. Go to the menu Formulas >> Evaluate Formula.

Good luck and be patient. Logical formulas sometimes need more time to think through.