# Functions IF, AND, OR in Excel

In this example, I show you how to use *IF*, *AND*, *OR* functions together in the Excel worksheet. There is not only the one solution in logical tasks. You can always modify the formula in different ways.

## Example

There are two exams in the table. Each student has to pass both of exams. Status is *OK* means that he passed. Status *NOK* means he did not pass.

Task: Create a function that evaluate if both exams are *OK*. If it’s true then Result is *Y*. If it’s not true then Result is *N*.

### Solution by using functions IF, AND

We will focus on the first student and the result *Y*. When it occurs? The answer is: When the cells *B2* **and** *C2* are both set to *OK*. So, we create the function like this:

=IF(AND(B2=”OK”,C2=”OK”),”Y”,”N”)

The parameters *OK*, *Y* and *N* are text strings so they have to be in the quotation marks.

Function *AND* returns only *TRUE*/*FALSE* value.

- If all of the logical tests in the *AND* function are *TRUE*, the result is *TRUE*.

- If at least one of the logical tests is *FALSE*, the result is *FALSE*.

### Solution by using functions IF, OR

Now, we examine the result *N*. It occurs when the cell *B2* **or** *C2* is set to *NOK*. The formula will be:

=IF(OR(B2=”NOK”,C2=”NOK”),”N”,”Y”)

Notice that the combination *IF* with *AND* is a logical opposite of the function *IF* with *OR*. Reverse is also true, *OR* is a logical opposite of *AND*.

### Solution by using multiple IF

This is a little bit different way to solve the logical problem. We put one *IF* function into the other.

=IF(B2=”OK”,IF(C2=”OK”,”Y”,”N”),”N”)

The first *IF* function will evaluate *B2=”OK”*. If it’s *FALSE* then the result is *N*. If it’s *TRUE* we need the other *IF* function to evaluate *C2=”OK”*. If it’s *TRUE* the result is *Y*, if not then the result is *N*.

You can change this formula to check *B2=”NOK”*. The principle is the same but everything is inverted.

=IF(B2=”NOK”,”N”,IF(C2=”NOK”,”N”,”Y”))

## Result

You can go by different ways but the result will be always the same and correct.

### Advantages/disadvantages of using AND, OR

- The formula is shorter (especially when you need to test more conditions).

- Sometimes, it is very hard to decide whether to use *AND* or *OR*.

### Advantages/disadvantages of using multiple IF

- The formula is longer (especially when you need to test more conditions).

- In more complex task is easier to figure out the formula.

## Useful tool – Evaluate Formula

This tool can help you to better understand the formula and find errors. Go to the menu Formulas >> Evaluate Formula.

Good luck and be patient. Logical formulas sometimes need more time to think through.

Overview of all possible conditions in IF formula. Is there such?

Do you have an example with NOT function? I need to reverse the logic in the IF formula. The case is very similar as here. Table is scoreboard. The task is to select students who failed in exam.

72ENVD

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